【iPS細胞】iPS細胞を応用した再生医療は世界をリード。「人材のストック」が再生医療の発展を支える。

 元旦の公明新聞には、新春対談として、医療の未来を開くiPS細胞(人工多能性幹細胞)を開発し、ノーベル医学・生理学賞を受賞された山中伸弥・京都大学iPS細胞研究所所長と、公明党の山口那津男代表の対談が掲載されました。
 iPS細胞研究が人の治療にどこまで近づいているのかなど、世界が注目する日本発の研究の未来について語らいが弾み、日本の医療がここまで発展しているかが良く分かります。是非ともご覧ください。
☆iPS細胞を応用した夢の医療はもうそこまで来ている 公明党代表 山口 那津男
☆想像をはるかに上回る画期的な技術力が人類の未来開く 京都大学iPS細胞研究所所長 山中 伸弥
 

_1[1]

山口那津男代表
 iPS細胞に対する山中先生のノーベル医学・生理学賞の受賞は、人類の大いなる希望です。私も感動しています。
 きょうは国民の皆さんの代表になったつもりで、山中先生に率直に質問させていただきたいと思います。iPS細胞を使った病気の治療や薬の開発に大きな期待が集まっていますね。
山中伸弥所長
 ありがとうございます。山口代表が言われたように、特に、iPS細胞を応用した再生医療はもうそこまで来ています。夏には、世界初のiPS細胞を用いた臨床研究として、患者の目の網膜への移植が始まります。
山口代表
 先生が基礎研究を始めたきっかけは、整形外科の臨床医時代に「難病の患者を治す方法を探したい」という思いからだったと聞きました。ですから、ノーベル賞の受賞後に「メダルは大切にしまい、もう見ることはない」と言われたエピソードは、これからの研究に向けた強い志を感じます。
山中所長
 日本のiPS細胞技術を使った再生医療は、間違いなく世界をリードしています。
 その一番手が、世界の失明原因の3本指に入る加齢黄斑変性という網膜の病気への臨床研究です。iPS細胞由来の網膜色素上皮細胞を移植し、安全性と効果を確かめる研究です。
山口代表
 そのほか、パーキンソン病や脊髄損傷など、いろんな臨床研究が計画されているようですね。
 実は先日、全国小・中学校作文コンクールで、中学3年生の男の子の作品が文部科学大臣賞を受賞しました。彼は3歳の時に重い「1型糖尿病」を発症。膵臓のβ細胞が侵され、インスリンが正しく分泌されないために高血糖となり、インスリンを生涯、自分で注射しなければならなくなりました。
 自分の将来に絶望していた時に、iPS細胞に希望の光を見いだして、自分も研究者の道を歩もうと決めたことを綴った作品です。
 彼のような病気も治る可能性は高いのでしょうか。
山中所長
 私たちの研究所も、インスリン依存性の糖尿病の研究に力を入れています。私の父も毎日インスリンを打っていましたので、その大変さは身に染みています。
 現在は、良い治療があります。また、脳死者などから膵臓の提供を受けて、インスリンを分泌するβ細胞を移植すれば血糖値が調整できます。ただ、移植症例数は多くありません。そこで私たちの研究所でも、iPS細胞からβ細胞を作る研究に毎日、奮闘しています。
山口代表
 想像をはるかに上回る画期的な技術力が人類の未来を開きます。大いなる希望になりますね。
山中所長
 β細胞を作れたら、移植は実際に行われていますので、多くの人を救うことができます。
山口代表
 小学校の教師をしていた母が、病院の院内学級の担任をしたことがあります。難病の子どもが病に苦しむ姿を見るとつらい、と話していました。研究の早期成功を願わずにはいられません。
 そこで課題は、高い研究コストです。例えば、加齢黄斑変性の臨床研究では、1人当たり2000万円とも3000万円ともいわれています。コストを下げるには、どうすればよいのでしょうか。
山中所長  
 ポイントがあると思います。1番目に「安全であること」。2番目に「有効であること」。3番目に「コスト的に高価でないこと」。この三つが、その順番で大切です。
 今までの治療と比べて「安全」で「有効」であれば、多くの患者がその治療を望み、多くの企業や臨床医が使いたいとなれば、コストはその技術開発と反比例して下がっていくと思います。
 もちろん、工夫も必要です。血液には血液バンクがあるように、多くの人が使える「iPS細胞ストック」を大量に作れば、価格はグッと下げられるはずです。
山口代表
 さい帯血は白血病など多くの患者の命を救っていますが、保存から10年以上たったり、移植に適さないさい帯血は処分されます。そのさい帯血を使ってiPS細胞をストックできるようにするため、公明党が努力して「造血幹細胞移植推進法」を成立させました。この法律は、まさに1月1日からの施行になります。
「人材のストック」という仕組み必要
山中所長
 さい帯血バンクは私たちにとって宝の山です。たった1人の赤ちゃんのさい帯血から作られたiPS細胞が何千人、何万人もの治療に役立つ可能性があります。この法律の施行は、iPS細胞ストック計画にとって、大きなステップになります。本当に感謝しています。
山口代表
 政府は、今後10年間で1100億円の予算を用意し、iPS細胞ストック関連の研究などに当初200億円と、毎年約90億円規模の支援を行います。 
山中所長
 10年間という大きなご支援は、非常にありがたく思っています。
 ただ、求められているのは、大学の教員や事務職員のほか、規制の専門家や生命倫理の専門家、企業と連携する契約の専門家、社会に対して私たちの研究を分かりやすく伝えるサイエンスコミュニケーターのような多様な人材です。
 しかし、大学には、こうした人材を終身雇用する力がありません。10年間の期限付きでは、今、30歳の人も10年後の40歳になって、「はい、雇用は終わりました」と言われるとつらい。
 この研究所には約200人の教職員がいますが、9割に当たる180人は有期雇用です。優秀で頑張っておられる方には、無期雇用をどのように担保できるか頭を痛めています。国や大学のシステムが変わらないと難しいです。
山口代表
 その通りですね。「iPS細胞ストック」だけではなく、「人材のストック」という仕組みが必要です。
山中所長
 はい。人こそが財産です。まさに「人財」。
 日本の民間企業には、能力と経験に見合った待遇で雇用されている優秀な「人財」がいます。民間企業並みの待遇を提供することはできないのが現状です。
山口代表
 私たち政治の側も、日本発の世界最先端の研究を支え、世界に発信し続けられる雇用の確保に最大限、力を入れてまいります。きょうは貴重なお時間、大変にありがとうございました。

“【iPS細胞】iPS細胞を応用した再生医療は世界をリード。「人材のストック」が再生医療の発展を支える。” への835件の返信

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